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Pdf Download Free eBook Energy and the Environment By Robert A. Ristinen Full version #site Robert A. Ristinen, Jack J. Kraushaar, Jeffrey Brack Download and Read Free Online Energy and the Environment, 3rd Edition Robert A. Ristinen, Jack online, book reviews epub, read books online, books to read online, online library. Book details Author: Robert A. Ristinen Pages: pages Download Free Energy and the Environment [PDF] Complete Click Below Click.

It is clear from this figure that we live in an extraordinary time in the many billion year history of the earth. This type of graph is called a semilogarithmic plot, an explanation of the scales is given in the Appendix.

Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census, ; U. Source: Reprinted with permission from M. Historical events added. When we burn coal, natural gas, or oil to ob- tain energy, gaseous compounds are formed and dumped into the atmosphere. This is causing problems we are just beginning to face.

But now with increasing world population, and industri- alization, this is no longer true. The atmospheric pollution is producing health problems and even death, and it is now becoming recognized that carbon dioxide emissions are threatening to produce climate changes over the entire globe.

Clearly the answers are not simple or the solutions would have been put into effect by now. The subject is complex and involves some under- standing of topics such as patterns of resource depletion, the workings of heat engines, solar cells, wind generators, nuclear reactors, and a myriad of other spe- cialized subjects.

Our goal is to gain understanding concerning the es- sential points. The standard of living we enjoy in the United States could be maintained with an expenditure of far less energy per person than at present. This side of solving the energy problem will be explored later under the heading of Energy Conservation. There is a large discrepancy between the rate of energy use by a typical citizen of an industrialized society and the typical cit- izen of a developing country, and it is accompanied by a notable difference in what we perceive as the standard of living.

This is illustrated in Figure 1. Although not indicated on this figure, sev- eral developing countries have very low rankings by either measure, and they would be located within the small quarter-circle shown at the extreme lower left corner of the figure.

There is no essential relationship between GDP per capita and the standard of living, but both are often related to the use of energy. A citizen of a devel- oping country might use the energy equivalent of less than one barrel of oil per year, compared to an annual energy equivalent of 20 to 60 barrels per capita for the most industrialized countries.

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The nonindustrialized countries derive a large fraction of their necessary energy from the muscular effort of people and Why Do We Use So Much Energy? The small quarter—circle at the lower left corner is discussed in the text.

There is an interesting quotation from an early physics textbook writ- ten by J. Dorman Steele in The combustion of a single pound of coal, supposing it to take place in a minute, is equivalent to the work of three hundred horses; and the force set free in the burning of pounds of coal is equivalent to the work of an able-bodied man for a lifetime.

Whether we refer to tons of coal or barrels of oil, it is indeed the fossil fuels that have had the major effect. Without fossil fuels we surely would have made progress toward labor-saving technology based on waterpower, firewood, windpower, and perhaps even nuclear power, but we would not have gone nearly so far in developing the energy-intensive society in which we now live.

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We may take the average power available to a person to be a measure of the productive output of a society. As seen in Figure 1. We now have a few hundred times that from other sources. Most of the difference is due to our use of fossil fuels to make the wheels go around. Horsepower per person in the U. Washington, DC: US.

Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. We can extend the answer to obtain the cost per day of this oil.

Energy and the environment ristinen ebook reader

Physicists and engineers define energy as the capacity to do work, leaving us then with the need to define work. Work is a general term to most of us; it sig- nifies everything from shoveling snow off the driveway to making out an income tax form, studying for an examination, or writing an essay.

We can achieve this by defin- ing work to be the product of force times the distance through which the force acts.

A common example of this definition of work is given by a force pushing an object along a rough surface. The force could be exerted by any agent: hu- man, steam engine, sled dog, or electric motor. In the British system of units, the force is given in pounds lb and the distance in feet ft , so work will then be in units of pound-feet, or more commonly foot-pounds ft-lb. In the metric sys- tem, work has the units of newton-meter N-m , where the newton is the met- ric unit of force and the meter is the metric unit of distance.

The metric unit of Example 1. The two systems of units British and metric are both in common use in the United States, and conversions be- tween them are not difficult. The numerical conversion factors are given inside the covers of this book. It is important to note that the same units are used for energy and work.

A more complete discussion of energy units is given in Section 1. In another case, the work being done also comes out to be zero if an object moves through a distance but with no force being exerted on it in the direction of the motion.

A hockey puck sliding freely along a perfectly slippery ice surface represents a situation where no work is being done on either the puck or the ice, and no energy is being expended. Both the force and the distance must have nonzero values if work is to be done. Since , he has taught the Energy and Environment course several times.

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Energy and the Environment 3rd Edition by Robert A. Ristinen Author , Jack J. Ristinen pdf eBook Organized under the work experience. The environment is interdisciplinary team who, choose Robert A.

Ristinen, Jack J. Kraushaar, Jeffrey Brack. Download it once and read it on your site device, PC, phones or tablets.The most dramatic recent examples of this equivalence are in nuclear weapons and nuclear reactors, but our entire existence is now known to depend on nuclear reactions in the sun. Figure 1.

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Kraushaar, Jeffrey Brack. The term thermal energy is interchangeable with heat energy. Cur- rent automobiles emit much smaller amounts of pollutants than their uncontrolled predecessors as a consequence of complex control systems. In the United States, which is among the most intensive users of energy, the average daily fossil fuel use per capita amounts to 56 times the necessary daily food energy intake. The energy value of food is the major component, but fuel energy is needed for cooking and, in some climates, for heating human shelter.

A citizen of a devel- oping country might use the energy equivalent of less than one barrel of oil per year, compared to an annual energy equivalent of 20 to 60 barrels per capita for the most industrialized countries.

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