PDF | 90+ minutes read | Learning how to effectively write a literature review is a critical tool for success for an academic, and perhaps even professional career. A literature review compiles and evaluates the research available on Because lit review formats vary greatly, be sure to read your professor's. How to Write a. Literature Review Part 4: Top tips for writing a literature review. – Writing . with the article title in quotes, and type the added filter “filetype:pdf”.
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Definition: A literature review is an objective, critical summary of published research literature relevant to a topic under consideration for research. Its purpose is. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of Use of Propofol and Emergence Agitation in Children: A Literature Review. A literature review is a survey of everything that has been written about a Much more than a simple list of sources, an effective literature review analyzes and.
I will then attempt to list and expand the main characteristics of IM that emerge from on the latest research conducted in this field. This paper aims to argue for meme literacy to be included in the limited traditional digital literacy definition and considered as an essential locus for cultural, civic and political participation for children and youth.
He attributes three key features to a successful meme: Copy-Fidelity, Fecundity and Longevity.
The first key feature, i. The second key feature, i. The third key feature, i. To understand IM, it is imperative to address the first issue of human agency.
The undermining of human agency is not inherent to the meme concept itself—only to one strain of its interpretation.
The dissemination of memes, she submits, is based on intentional agents with decision- making powers: Social norms, perceptions, and preferences are crucial in memetic selection processes. His definition which emphasizes on human agency in the circulation and transformation of internet memes is later reflected in the research conducted on IM role in articulating perspectives on OWS movement where IM portrayed polyvocality and each meme a user created or shared altered the discourse of the OWS online R.
Milner, Based on their empirical research, they concluded constitutive element of successful internet memes — humour, rich intertexuality and anomalous juxtapositions. From their research, they developed a typology of IM that categorised the memes into static memes replicated with very little variation and remixed memes replicated via evolution, adaptation or transformation of the original meme vehicle. Although the IM considered in the research differ much more in definition now but it addressed one of the two key issues related to IM.
Literature Review Basics
As put aptly by Yus, the qualities of internet memes led some researchers to equate them to virals. However, there is only a partial overlapping between the qualities of memes and virals: This is not possible in memes, which are intentionally created and transferred. Besides, memes are often altered by the free software available on the Net, whereas virals tend to spread unaltered Yus, They further define internet memes as systems similar to Shifman where memes cannot be understood in isolation but in context with eachother.
Some academicians also referred to online sources for definitions of IM such as knowyourmeme to explore the digital meme phenomenon but found them lacking in academically rigourous way Cannizzaro, Therefore, the definition of IM has evolved from being viral static or remixed , typically a joke or humourous content on shared on digital platforms to systems of units of popular culture that are circulated, imitated, and transformed by individual Internet users, creating a shared cultural experience in the process.
Empirical Research on IM No. Research Name Author Purpose Methodology 1. Memes and affinities: The World Made Meme: Hacking the Social: Pop Polyvocality: Discourse Analysis Wall Street movement R. Milner, 5. Arctic Multimodal Let's Go! Laughing across borders: Digital cultures of political participation: Examine the visual discursive features of Multimodal Internet memes and the discursive Internet memes in relation to the Discourse Analysis delegitimization of the U.
S candidates for the U. Much of empirical research in the field of IM has been qualitative content analysis. Most research have analysed internet memes in web-based communities. Much favoured and suitable methodology to analyse IM is the multimodal discourse analysis and critical discourse analysis.
Grounded analysis approach seems like a lucrative methodology to further analyse and characterize IM in digital space across various communities and social media networks.
IM Characteristics The complied empirical research above addresses IM in various online digital spaces and various contexts, many of them being social movements faciliated by IM. Based on my analysis of the empirical research above, I have compiled a list of charateristics associated with IM and its major roles on the internet.
Memes as artifacts highlight their social and cultural role on the new media landscape. A clear example of IM being form of cultural capital is in the online community 4chan board where internet meme are a form of cultural capital that is required in order to assert a legitimate voice. The memetic practice is not merely an expression of existing social cultural norms, it is also a social tool for negotiating them.
The relationship between memes and norms is thus twofold: As shown by Milner in his research — the internet meme could be a quintessential participatory artifact: The technology required to create memes is often relatively simple and entirely free, requiring only that a willing participant know where to download the tools and where to upload the results R. In the empirical research, IM has been seen agents of participatory media — web communities reddit, tumblr, and youtube , anonymous web communities 4chan board and the Cheezburger Network , and social media networks facebook and twitter.
Their creation is facilitated by various online tools available in the form of websites and downloadable free open source softwares. Identity Memes are often produced on sites where social collectives come together and define themselves at least loosely as a group R. As agents of participatory media, they become especially powerful in framing the online identity of the user.
This is framing is both intentional and unintentional on the side of the user. Main aspects of social media, namely the content published, including memes in the form of text, images, and videos actively contribute to the online persona or identity of the user.
It is also important to note that same IM can be used to construct vastly different shared group identities Miltner, This phenomemenon is described by Yus as networked individualism, standing somewhere in-between the joy of being individual and the joy of feeling the approval of the group.
User-generated versions of a meme may serve both purposes: But at the same time, what they upload as individual often relates to common, widely shared rules or formulas. For the sperm whale project, one methodological approach would be to look at cultural differences between the portrayal of whales in American, British, and French art work.
Or the review might focus on the economic impact of whaling on a community. A methodological scope will influence either the types of documents in the review or the way in which these documents are discussed. They should arise out of your organizational strategy. In other words, a chronological review would have subsections for each vital time period. A thematic review would have subtopics based upon factors that relate to the theme or issue.
Sometimes, though, you might need to add additional sections that are necessary for your study, but do not fit in the organizational strategy of the body. What other sections you include in the body is up to you. Put in only what is necessary. Here are a few other sections you might want to consider: Current Situation: Information necessary to understand the topic or focus of the literature review. History: The chronological progression of the field, the literature, or an idea that is necessary to understand the literature review, if the body of the literature review is not already a chronology.
For instance, you might explain that your review includes only peer-reviewed articles and journals. Questions for Further Research: What questions about the field has the review sparked? How will you further your research as a result of the review?
There are a few guidelines you should follow during the writing stage as well. Here is a sample paragraph from a literature review about sexism and language to illuminate the following discussion: However, other studies have shown that even gender-neutral antecedents are more likely to produce masculine images than feminine ones Gastil, Hamilton found that people imagined 3. Thus, while ambient sexism accounted for some of the masculine bias, sexist language amplified the effect.
Use evidence In the example above, the writers refer to several other sources when making their point. A literature review in this sense is just like any other academic research paper. Your interpretation of the available sources must be backed up with evidence to show that what you are saying is valid. Be selective Select only the most important points in each source to highlight in the review. Use quotes sparingly Falk and Mills do not use any direct quotes.
That is because the survey nature of the literature review does not allow for in-depth discussion or detailed quotes from the text. Some short quotes here and there are okay, though, if you want to emphasize a point, or if what the author said just cannot be rewritten in your own words.
Notice that Falk and Mills do quote certain terms that were coined by the author, not common knowledge, or taken directly from the study. But if you find yourself wanting to put in more quotes, check with your instructor. Summarize and synthesize Remember to summarize and synthesize your sources within each paragraph as well as throughout the review. Notice that Falk and Mills weave references to other sources into their own text, but they still maintain their own voice by starting and ending the paragraph with their own ideas and their own words.
The sources support what Falk and Mills are saying.
For more information, please see our handout on plagiarism. Revise, revise, revise Draft in hand? Spending a lot of time revising is a wise idea, because your main objective is to present the material, not the argument. Be sure to use terminology familiar to your audience; get rid of unnecessary jargon or slang. Works consulted We consulted these works while writing this handout. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using.
For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial. We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback. Anson, Chris M. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers. New York: Longman, New York: Harcourt Brace, We don't believe that it is a good literature review. It only gives a summary of previous research but it does not use the literature to explain more about the writer's own research problem.
Also, it is not critical: The main problem with this literature review is that it does not show how previous research relates to the writer's own research problem, or the relationship between different research already carried out. Given the organization the writer has used, this literature review could not be effective literature review because there is little scope for showing relationships, drawing comparisons, or making evaluations.
Remember the purpose: Look at how published writers review the literature. You'll see that you should use the literature to explain your research - after all, you are not writing a literature review just to tell your reader what other researchers have done. You aim should be to show why your research needs to be carried out, how you came to choose certain methodologies or theories to work with, how your work adds to the research already carried out, etc. Read with a purpose: You should also look for the major concepts, conclusions, theories, arguments etc.
This is difficult when you first start reading, but should become easier the more you read in your area. Did Researcher X build on the work of Researcher Y? In order to do this effectively you should carefully plan how you are going to organize your work. A lot of people like to organize their work chronologically using time as their organizing system. Unless developments over time are crucial to explain the context of your research problem, using a chronological system will not be an effective way to organize your work.
Some people choose to organize their work alphabetically by author name: When you read for your literature review, you are actually doing two things at the same time which makes things more difficult for you!
You are trying to define your research problem: You are trying to read every source relevant to your research problem. Naturally, until you have defined your problem, you will find that there are hundreds of sources that seem relevant. However, you cannot define your problem until you read around your research area. This seems a vicious circle, but what should happen is that as you read you define your problem, and as you define your problem you will more easily be able to decide what to read and what to ignore.
Trying to read everything! As you might already have discovered, if you try to be comprehensive you will never be able to finish the reading!
The idea of the literature review is not to provide a summary of all the published work that relates to your research, but a survey of the most relevant and significant work.
Reading but not writing! It's easier to read than to write: Writing takes much more effort, doesn't it? However, writing can help you to understand and find relationships between the work you've read, so don't put writing off until you've "finished" reading - after all, you will probably still be doing some reading all the way through to the end of your research project. Also, don't think of what you first write as being the final or near-final version.
Writing is a way of thinking, so allow yourself to write as many drafts as you need, changing your ideas and information as you learn more about the context of your research problem. Not keeping bibliographic information! The moment will come when you have to write your references page. The only solution is to spend a lot of time in the library tracking down all those sources that you read, and going through your writing to find which information came from which source. To avoid this nightmare, always keep this information in your notes.
Always put references into your writing. This example is taken from an introduction because most thesis literature reviews tend to be too long for us to easily look at. Although your literature review will probably be much longer than the one below, it is useful to look at the principles the writers have used.
On the optimal container size in automated warehouses Y. Roll, M. Rosenblatt and D. Forecasts indicate that this trend will continue for the foreseeable future see . Early work by Hausman, Schwarz and Graves [6, 7] was concerned with storage assignment and interleaving policies, based on turnover rates of the various items.
Additional work by Karasawa et al. Several researchers addressed the problem of the optimal handling unit pallet or container size, to be used in material handling and warehousing systems.
Steudell , Tanchoco and Agee, Tanchoco et al. The last two references incorporate the size of the pallet, or unit load, in evaluation of the optimal lot sizes for multi-inventory systems with limited storage space. In a report on a specific case, Normandin  has demonstrated that using the 'best-size' container can result in considerable savings.
The general results, reflecting the stochastic nature of the flow of goods, are similar to those reported by Rosenblatt and Roll . Nevertheless, container size was found to affect strongly overall warehousing costs. In this paper, we present an analytical framework for approximating the optimal size of a warehouse container. The approximation is based on series of generalizations and specific assumptions. However, these are valid for a wide range of real life situations.
The underlying assumptions of the model are presented in the following section.
Notice how the writers have: Summary of previous research:Reviews of Literature http: The only solution is to spend a lot of time in the library tracking down all those sources that you read, and going through your writing to find which information came from which source. I will then attempt to list and expand the main characteristics of IM that emerge from on the latest research conducted in this field.
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Conference proceedings: Early work by Hausman, Schwarz and Graves [6, 7] was concerned with storage assignment and interleaving policies, based on turnover rates of the various items.
These are the most common mistakes made in reviewing social science research literature.
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