Constitutional text of october 5, , with the alterations introduced Constituição, brasil, . section iii – the Military of the states, of the federal district. 28 fev. Título V. Da Defesa do Estado e das Instituições Democráticas. Capítulo I. Do Estado de Defesa e do Estado de Sítio. Capítulo II. Das Forças. Título VIII Da Ordem Social. Capítulo VIII Dos Índios. Art. São reconhecidos aos índios sua organização social, costumes, línguas, crenças e tradições, e os.
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REPÚBLICA FEDERATIVA DO BRASIL DE As referências .. fato de a Constituição Federal ter assegurado o direito das sociedades indígenas a uma. The Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil is the supreme law of Brazil. It is the foundation and source of the legal authority underlying the existence of Brazil and the federal government of Brazil. It was promulgated on 5 October , after a two-year process in which it was written from scratch. Ingo Wolfgang Sarlet - Dignidade da Pessoa Humana e Direitos Fundamentais na Constituição Federal de pdf. Uploaded by Camila Junca. Copyright.
Law 8, of Local circuits of food production and consumption have been promoted in various countries, but the Brazilian context differs because of the specific incentive for family farming and not only for local agriculture.
The article acknowledges that the institutional link between school feeding and local agriculture through Law 11, is a milestone in food and nutritional security policies. However, it is important to note that this is the first legislation for the PNAE that mentions not only the incentive for local downloads, but preferentially for downloads from family farming and indigenous and quilombola slave-descendant communities.
The justifications for downloads from family farming can differ from those for local downloads.
Constitution of Brazil
As the article emphasizes, the demands to link family farming to government downloads had been voiced since the s, but ran into difficulties when attempting to sell to the institutional market. Such demands also took on new meanings. As an important milestone from the legacy of policies to encourage family farming, the program is mentioned by Schwartzman et al.
However, PRONAF reshaped government action in agriculture, since the Brazilian state now formally recognized a specific category of farmers.
The definition was later adopted formally in Law 11, of July 24, In the context of the Zero Hunger Program and CONSEA, the support for family farming was seen as a structural policy to promote economic activities on an equitable basis and expand the supply of foods that express dietary cultural diversity and induce competition in markets controlled by large food industries.
Reclaiming the social importance of family farming was essential to development of the focus on food and nutritional security in Brazil, highlighting its productive capacity, since family farming supplies the largest share of the domestic consumer market, despite limited access to land, farm credit, and technical support; preservation of traditional knowledge, local culture, and the potential for sustainable and equitable development.
The promotion of agroecological farming techniques not always used by family farming was prioritized, but from the perspective of a progressive transition that did not override the support for family farming.
This measure is mainly designed to reduce the high global rates of childhood malnutrition, to increase immunity and to decrease infant mortality WHO, Almeida and Novak warned that biological factors need to be contextualized to the reality of the wifemother-nurturer and the relationship established with the baby, in order to favor the adaption to the maternal condition and interposed new requirements.
Santiago presented worrying data on the mean duration of breastfeeding in Brazil. According to a study conducted in , the mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding in Brazil is only This was observed even after a long media campaign aiming to increase public awareness regarding the importance of breastfeeding. The comprehension of these rates, according to the author, may be associated with lack of preparation of the health network regarding guidance to mothers, health problems of the mother and maternity leave for a shorter period than is required by the baby.
In contrast, researchers indicate other concerns in countries with full adherence to exclusive breastfeeding, such as in India.
Thakur, Holambe and Wadagale , in a study conducted with a population of Indian mothers, with a mean age of The concern was related to the In this case, the concern is related to the greater risk of malnutrition and vulnerability of babies due to lack of nutrients essential for their growth and unavailable from exclusive breastfeeding at this age.
Arquivos deste item
The targets established by the WHO , regarding the maintenance of exclusive breast-feeding up to six months of life of the baby, require actions, in the context of public policies, that not only guarantee breastfeeding but also meet the nutritional needs of the baby after this period.
With regard to the lack of preparation of health professionals, the WHO highlighted a lack of expertise to properly guide the puerpera faced with the difficulties at the initiation of breastfeeding. The professionals may not know how to help the mother to initiate and maintain exclusive breastfeeding, recommending early introduction of supplements or even, openly or covertly, promoting breast milk substitutes WHO, Almeida and Novak state that this behavior leads to the importation of a culture of early weaning and strengthens myths about breastfeeding.
As a positive experience of the training of professionals given this demand, Davanzo, Pierpaolo and Travan described a study conducted in Italy. The authors stress the importance of the training of health professionals in guidance and management of issues related to the initiation of breastfeeding. For this, they established protocols for the registration of the mothers needs in the postpartum period and technical team practices that could favor the initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding.
Among the concerns identified, the following stood out: essential care to the mother in the postpartum period, which should favor the contact between mother and baby through touch, 'skin to skin' contact; care and guidance during the period when the baby presents weight loss and the mother may be afraid of not providing sufficient milk; guidance when the mother needs to take medication that can have side effects for the baby, and advice regarding problems related to the health of the baby, such as malabsorption and allergies.
For the issues presented, the technical team, in the hospitalization period of the mother, should be sufficiently prepared to advise her about possible periods of temporary interruption of the breastfeeding, provision of human milk from the milk bank or specialized formulas and the maintenance of production and expression of the breast milk to give to the baby in the future. From the indications of Davanzo et al.
Considering the time required for the milk let-down reflex, which in some cases can reach up to 72 hours United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF], , it is common that many mothers leave the maternity unit without having actually initiated breastfeeding, facing alone a number of difficulties regarding hand expression, nipple shape, pain, and cracked nipples, among others.
Guidance for mothers is necessary since women often find themselves improperly prepared and informed about breastfeeding. Rahalkar, Phalke and Phalke report that the benefits of breastfeeding will depend on factors such as the initiation, duration and age at which weaning occurs, with it being important to understand that cultural and economic factors are directly linked to these practices.
A study of breastfeeding women in India, over a two month period, identified, through the application of a questionnaire, that the most adequate breastfeeding practices were related to higher levels of education of the mothers. The strong emphasis on breastfeeding is based on numerous studies that consider it to be an ideal food mainly due to its nutritional benefits and immunity properties.
In addition to the above factors arising from breastfeeding, cultural factors are also present, which attribute to the mother the obligations of full dedication to motherhood.
Constituição consagra direito indígena de manter terras, modo de vida e tradições
In this context, the inability to breastfeed may be interpreted by some women as if they were in social and biological debt to their child. The effective impossibility of breastfeeding mainly arises due to high rates of infection presented by the mother, which would be transmitted through the breast milk.
In this situation, the WHO established some measures to prevent the transmission of diseases such as, the indication of the substitution of breastfeeding for the use of appropriate formulas until the second year of life for children born to mothers with diseases such as AIDS, hepatitis B and other diseases that could lead to contamination through human milk UNICEF, However, these formulas are not always accessible, due to their high cost.
What is often perceived, is the incidence of improper artificial feeding, using milk that is unfit for consumption by infants.
While not being an interruption of breast-feeding, the return to work of the mother is often associated with early weaning. In Brazil, in , legislation presented significant advances, guaranteeing women days maternity leave Senado Federal, In , Federal Law No. Added to this initiative it was suggested that companies provide childcare vouchers to breastfeeding mothers, with thirty-minute breastfeeding breaks during the work shift.
In the sample investigated by Brasileiro et al. Although the change in Brazilian law does not fully meet the requirements of the WHO, the initial measures point to decreased illness and infant mortality, which were high in the s.
According to Batista and Silva , the Ministry of Health initiatives based on the defense of breastfeeding were responsible for creating the National Program to Encourage Breastfeeding, valorizing and disseminating this practice for the Brazilian culture PAHO, Knowing the importance of breastfeeding and the impossibility for some mothers to perform this practice, it is possible that mothers who are unable to breastfeed may feel guilty due to not being able to feed their child and provide the necessary conditions for normal development.
The interruption of breastfeeding can cause various psychological repercussions for the mother, with it being necessary to promote conscientization of the behaviors present during breastfeeding that are favorable for the structuring of the mother-infant bond, regardless of the form of breastfeeding. In this task, the practice of the health professionals is of utmost importance, uncovering and addressing myths and fears of the mother about this interruption.
Seeking to indicate subsidies for mothers unable to breast-feeding, this study aimed to: a perform an analysis of information available in handbooks on breastfeeding for babies, published in Brazil from to , in order to identify information on milk quality, quantity, hygiene conditions, position of the baby and psychological benefits of natural and artificial breastfeeding, and b compare the results and indicate information important for mothers unable to breastfeed.
Method To carry out the literature review breast-feeding handbooks available on the websites of the National and State Health Departments of Brazil, from to , were selected. Eleven national and eight state handbooks were selected.
The selection criterion for the national handbooks was the time period.
In the state departments, it was realized that the majority referred to the national handbooks. Therefore, those that indicated their own handbooks on the breastfeeding theme booklet or handbook , within the study period, were selected. Data analysis was organized in two ways. Initially categories of analysis were pre-established for the content related to breastfeeding and artificial feeding, these being: a quality of milk; b quantity to be provided to the baby; c hygiene conditions; d frequency; e position of the baby; f introduction of food supplements and, g psychological benefits.
The categories were quantified and described in relation to their content. In the second analysis, it was sought to identify the main contents provided by the handbooks that extrapolated the categories studied.
In both analyzes quantitative and qualitative descriptions were performed. Results and Discussion After reading the national and regional handbooks, the occurrence of the categories previously selected in this study was quantified.
As presented in Table 1 , the first category of analysis relates to the quality of the milk. Although the UNICEF Handbook is international, it was disseminated through a national portal, therefore was considered for the analysis. Indications of the amount were not precise, requiring the mother to have the ability to recognize when her child is hungry. The UNICEF handbook describes the condition of the newborn which will initially have its sleep cycle interrupted by hunger.
The mother, in turn, should pay attention that the sleep interval does not exceed three hours in the first month of life. This handbook states that the time for a baby to empty one breast is four minutes, which changes due to the time it actually sucks the milk and the time it uses the breast as a 'pacifier'.
This may result in multiple daily feedings, requiring the mother to be rested and completely free for this act. This statement appears in the part that deals with restrictions on breastfeeding. In other handbooks, such as that of UNICEF , questions relating to the temporary restriction of breastfeeding are dealt with more, for which the provision of pasteurized human milk by trans-lactation is recommended.Wikimedia Commons has media related to Constitutions of Brazil.
Even before the enactment of the Federal Constitution, which included Brazil among democratic countries after twenty-five years of military dictatorship, a number of lawyers had already been concerned with the exam of political and axiological elements in Brazilian law 5.
In fact, Justice Gilmar Mendes maintained the condemnatory decision, denying the habeas corpus because there had been no violation of the principle of proportionality.
Title 7[ edit ] Title 7 rules the economic activities in the country, the agricultural and urban policies, as well the state monopolies. However we must give up a useless search for restriction methods to those rights and pursue genuine restrictions in a good argumentation.
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